The external features of the brain


The external features of the brain best seen on its Ventral surface are shown. Extending along the inferior surface of the frontal lobe near the midline are the #olfactory tracts(Smell), which arise from enlargements at their anterior ends called the olfactory bulbs. The olfactory bulbs receive input from neurons in the epithelial lining of the nasal cavity whose axons make up the first #cranial nerve (cranial nerve I is therefore called the olfactory nerve. On the ventromedial surface of the Temporal Lobe, the parahippocampal gyrus conceals the hippocampus, a highly convoluted cortical structure that figures importantly in memory. Slightly more medial to the #parahippocampal gyrus is the uncus, a slightly conical protrusion that includes the pyriform cortex. The pyriform cortex is the target of the lateral olfactory tract and processes olfactory information. At the most central aspect of the ventral surface of the forebrain is the optic chiasm, and immediately posterior, the ventral surface of the hypothalamus, including the infundibular stalk(the base of pituitary gland) and the mammillary bodies. Posterior to the hypothalamus are two large tracts, oriented roughly rostral/caudally, called the cerebral peduncles. These tracts contain axons from the cerebral hemispheres that project to the #MotorNeurons in the brainstem and into the lateral and ventral columns of the spinal cord. Finally, the ventral surfaces of the pons, medulla, and cerebellar hemispheres can be seen on the ventral surface of the brain. #Davinci rediscovered what the ancients already knew about the human anatomy.


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